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The King Over the Water: A Complete History of the Jacobites

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Following Charles's death, Scottish Catholics swore allegiance to the House of Hanover, and resolved two years later to pray for King George by name. It may well have been naïve to think of this as a solution, but it certainly gave the cause additional energy and seriousness of purpose. Applying primogeniture, the notional rights to the Stuarts' claim then passed to Henry's nearest surviving relative, Charles Emmanuel IV of Sardinia, and from him on to other members of the House of Savoy, and then to the Houses of Austria-Este and Wittelsbach over the subsequent two centuries. Seward argues convincingly that Jacobitism quickly became about far more than merely restoring a claimant to the throne.

However, James and his supporters denied that he had abdicated [3] and claimed that the declaration of forfeiture had been by an illegal Scottish Convention. An example was John Matthews, a Jacobite printer executed in 1719; his pamphlet Vox Populi vox Dei emphasised the Lockean theory of the social contract, a doctrine very few Tories of the period would have supported. However, with help from the excellent ODNB article, written by Dr Paul Seaward, of the History of Parliament Trust (I am sure that we have Antonia Fraser’s Charles II somewhere in the house, but in my current befuddled state, I can’t find it), I learn (among much else) that in March 1646 he left from Pendennis Castle in Cornwall for the Scilly Isles, after the advance of the Parliamentarian army into the West Country. He therefore resisted measures that might "dissatisfy his Protestant subjects" in England and Scotland, complaining "he was fallen into the hands of a people who would ram many hard things down his throat".In 1715, there were co-ordinated celebrations on 29 May, Restoration Day, and 10 June, James Stuart's birthday, especially in Tory-dominated towns like Bristol, Oxford, Manchester and Norwich, although they remained quiet in the 1715 Rising. With the defeat at the Battle of Culloden in 1746, Jacobitism was dealt a death blow and the Jacobite succession lost its significance as a dynastic alternative to the Hanoverians. As in England, throughout the 1720s, James' birthday on 10 June was marked by celebrations in Dublin, and towns like Kilkenny and Galway. Jacobite soldiers went into exile in the diaspora known as the Flight of the Wild Geese, the majority of whom were later absorbed into the French Irish Brigade.

Although he also approved Parliament's resolution that Ireland was a "distinct kingdom" and laws passed in England did not apply there, he refused to abolish Poynings' Law, which required Irish legislation to be approved by the English Parliament. However, Gaelic scholar Breandán Ó Buachalla claims his reputation subsequently recovered as "the rightful king. Other than Morgan, the vast majority of their members took no part in the 1745 Rising; Charles later said "I will do for the Welsh Jacobites what they did for me. Scots fought for the Jacobites in 1715, compared to 11,000 who joined the government army, and were the majority of the 9,000 to 14,000 who served in 1745.

Nineteenth-century Scots poets such as Alicia Ann Spottiswoode and Carolina Nairne, Lady Nairne (whose " Bonnie Charlie" remains popular) added further examples. James lawfully succeeded his brother, Charles II, to the throne on 6 February 1685, as Charles did not have any legitimate children. This extraordinary proposal was ratified in March, and in May Charles was asked to lead an invasion of England from Scotland. Their exclusion from power between 1714 and 1742 led many Tories to remain in contact with the Jacobite court, which they saw as a potential tool for changing or pressuring the existing government. English common law determined the line of succession based on male-preference primogeniture, [33] [34] and Scots law applied the same principle in relation to the crown of Scotland.

Events also highlighted the reality that a low level, ongoing insurgency was far more cost-effective for the French than a restoration, a form of warfare potentially devastating to the local populace. Riot and Popular Jacobitism in Early Hanoverian England, in Ideology and conspiracy: aspects of Jacobitism, 1689–1759. In Brugge, Charles was accompanied by his brothers, James, duke of York, and Henry, duke of Gloucester (whom he had removed from his mother’s influence, believing that she was attempting to convert him to Catholicism).However, his refusal to renounce his claim to be 'Henry IX' prevented a full reconciliation with the House of Hanover. After 1690, Irish Jacobites were also split between Tyrconnell's 'Peace party' who continued to seek a negotiated solution, and a 'War party' led by Patrick Sarsfield who favoured fighting on to the end. Combined with Jacobite rhetoric and symbolism among rapparees or bandits, some historians claim this provides evidence of continuing popular support for a Stuart restoration. Walter Scott, author of Waverley, a story of the 1745 rebellion, combined a romantic view of Jacobitism with an appreciation of the practical benefits of Union.

The Duke of Cumberland, the son of George II, never forgot this, making it a personal ambition to put an end for good to what he saw as a truly cancerous problem.By the late 1720s arguments over doctrine and the death of its originators reduced the church to a handful of scattered congregations, but several of those executed in 1745 came from Manchester, the last significant assembly in England. In June, Cromwell moved north, and rather than waiting to be attacked, Charles moved his army south into England – as far as Worcester – hoping that English royalists would flock to his banner. a] The Jacobite succession, as a dynastic alternative for the throne, became a major factor in destabilising British politics between 1689 and 1746.

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